Russia has suffered a major defeat in the south of Ukraine, withdrawing from the western Kherson region .
Here are the latest developments:
- The city of Kherson has been liberated by Ukrainian troops
- The loss of the city is a major setback for Russia
- Ukraine’s latest advance comes after weeks of attacks on Russian-controlled bridges and other positions around Kherson
- Elsewhere in Ukraine, fighting continues in Donetsk as Russian forces attempt to advance towards Bakhmut
Ukrainian success in Kherson
Ukrainian troops have won a major victory against Russia, taking control of the western Kherson region, including Kherson city.
The latest Ukrainian advance came after months of successful attacks on Russian positions on the west side of the Dnipro River, aimed at disrupting Russian supply lines.
Ukrainian targets included bridges across the river, as well as the roads, pontoons, barges and landing areas.
Ukraine’s success in Kherson resulted “in large part from the Ukrainian Armed Forces’ (UAF’s) innovative use of the US-provided Himars precision rocket system”, according to Institute for the Study of War (ISW).
Multiple precision strikes using Himars made Russian positions on the west side of the river impossible to resupply.
Also in the south, Russia has continued air, missile and artillery strikes in recent days, with targets including Zaporizhzhia City.Ukraine says it has also struck Russian positions in Zaporizhzhia region.Russian forces are forcibly mobilising men in Melitopol and Zaporizhzhia, and forcing them to construct trenches and other defences, according to the ISW.
Intense fighting in the east
Russian forces are continuing to conduct ground attacks near Bakhmut and Siversk.Ukraine says it has successfully held off the latest assaults, with intense fighting concentrated on the road network.
Ukrainian troops took control of the key logistical hub of Lyman in Donetsk at the beginning of October.
Russian forces operating in the East are believed to include regular Russian troops, mobilised servicemen, Wagner private contractors, Chechen units and personnel from the so-called Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics.
The current Russian push towards Bakhmut followed a major defeat in the east in September when Russian units were forced back in the Kharkiv region.
Russian troops withdrew from the key towns of Izyum and Kupiansk, saying that the retreat would allow its troops to “regroup”.
Both towns were major logistical hubs for Russian forces in Donbas.
Ukraine’s power grid under fire
Earlier in October, Russia appeared to shift tactics, targeting Ukrainian cities further from the frontline, with missile strikes for the first time in months.
Russian forces used Shahed-136 drones recently purchased from Iran in the attacks, as well as ballistic and cruise missiles.
Attacks on Ukraine’s energy infrastructure by Russian forces have triggered blackouts in major cities, including Kyiv, Lviv, Zaporizhzhia and Kharkiv.
Four regions of Ukraine, Donetsk, Luhansk, Kherson and Zaporizhzhia were annexed by the Russian Federation in September.Russia does not fully control any of the four regions.
President Vladimir Putin has said that Russia will use “all the forces and resources” it has to “liberate” the four regions.
In an address to the Russian people, Mr Putin said his country had “various weapons of destruction”, adding: “I’m not bluffing.”
Russia invaded Ukraine on 24 February, but Ukrainian forces retook large areas around Kyiv in early April after Russia abandoned its push towards the capital.
Areas in the west of the country, including Lviv, have seen missile attacks but no attempt by Russian forces to take and occupy ground.
The Russians have suffered heavy losses since the invasion began and significant quantities of Russian weaponry have also been destroyed or captured.
By David Brown, Bella Hurrell, Dominic Bailey, Mike Hills, Lucy Rodgers, Paul Sargeant, Alison Trowsdale, Tural Ahmedzade, Mark Bryson, Zoe Bartholomew, Sean Willmott, Sana Dionysiou, Joy Roxas, Gerry Fletcher, Jana Tauschinsk, Debie Loizou, Simon Martin and Prina Shah.
About these maps
To indicate which parts of Ukraine are under control by Russian troops we are using daily assessments published by the Institute for the Study of War with the American Enterprise Institute’s Critical Threats Project.
To show key areas where advances are taking place we are also using daily updates from the UK Ministry of Defence and BBC research.
The situation in Ukraine is fast moving and it is likely there will be times when there have been changes not reflected in the maps.